Posted tagged ‘jasanone’

Bicentenario de la Independencia de México 200 años de libertad.

September 10, 2010

Este año México celebra el bicentenario de su independencia, al igual que  Colombia, Argentina, Chile y Venezuela.

 

El proceso de la independencia de México fue uno de los más largos de América Latina. La lucha duró once años, la   independencia de México se consumó el 27 de septiembre de 1821. La Nueva España permaneció bajo el control de la Corona por unos tres siglos. Sin embargo, a finales del siglo XVIII, ciertos cambios en la estructura social, económica y política de la colonia llevaron a una élite ilustrada de novohispanos a reflexionar acerca de su relación con España. Sin subestimar la influencia de la Ilustración, la Revolución Francesa ni la independencia de Estados Unidos, el hecho que llevó a la élite criolla a comenzar el movimiento emancipador fue la ocupación francesa de España, en 1808. Hay que recordar que en ese año, Carlos IV y Fernando VII abdicaron sucesivamente en favor de José Bonaparte, de modo que España quedó como una especie de protectorado francés.

      Ligas de interes:

http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/ http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/

              
GritoBicentenariohttp://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/15septiembre/

MiguelHidalgo estandarte

El 16 de septiembre de 1810, llevando un estandarte con la imagen de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, patrona de México, Hidalgo lanzó el llamado grito de Dolores que inició la revuelta. Una vez congregada la población frente a la iglesia, el cura Hidalgo pronuncia un emotivo sermón, al final del cual grita: "¡Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe!, ¡Abajo el mal gobierno!”

El movimiento independentista mexicano tiene como marco la Ilustración y las revoluciones liberales de la última parte del siglo XVIII. Por esa época la élite ilustrada comenzaba a reflexionar acerca de las relaciones de España con sus colonias. Los cambios en la estructura social y política derivados de las reformas borbónicas, a los que se sumó una profunda crisis económica en Nueva España, también generaron un malestar entre algunos segmentos de la población.

La ocupación francesa de la metrópoli en 1808 desencadenó en Nueva España una crisis política que desembocó en el movimiento armado. En ese año, el rey Carlos IV y Fernando VII abdicaron sucesivamente en favor de Napoleón Bonaparte, que dejó la corona de España a su hermano José Bonaparte. Como respuesta, el ayuntamiento de México —con apoyo del virrey José de Iturrigaray— reclamó la soberanía en ausencia del rey legítimo; la reacción condujo a un golpe de Estado contra el virrey y llevó a la cárcel a los cabecillas del movimiento.

Independencia Nacional. Bicentenario México 2010

A pesar de la derrota de los criollos en la Ciudad de México en 1808, en otras ciudades de Nueva España se reunieron pequeños grupos de conjurados que pretendieron seguir los pasos del ayuntamiento de México. Tal fue el caso de la conjura de Valladolid, descubierta en 1809 y cuyos participantes fueron puestos en prisión. En 1810, los conspiradores de Querétaro estuvieron a punto de correr la misma suerte pero, al verse descubiertos, optaron por tomar las armas el 16 de septiembre en compañía de los habitantes indígenas y campesinos del pueblo de Dolores (Guanajuato), convocados por el cura Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

A partir de 1810, el movimiento independentista pasó por varias etapas, pues los sucesivos líderes fueron puestos en prisión o ejecutados por las fuerzas leales a España. Al principio se reivindicaba la soberanía de Fernando VII sobre España y sus colonias, pero los líderes asumieron después posturas más radicales, incluyendo cuestiones de orden social como la abolición de la esclavitud. José María Morelos y Pavón convocó a las provincias independentistas a conformar el Congreso de Anáhuac, que dotó al movimiento insurgente de un marco legal propio. Tras la derrota de Morelos, el movimiento se redujo a una guerra de guerrillas. Hacia 1820, sólo quedaban algunos núcleos rebeldes, sobre todo en la sierra Madre del Sur y en Veracruz.  Leer mas: Etapas de la Independencia de México

La rehabilitación de la Constitución de Cádiz en 1820 alentó el cambio de postura de las élites novohispanas, que hasta ahí habían respaldado el dominio español. Al ver afectados sus intereses, los criollos monarquistas decidieron apoyar la independencia de Nueva España, para lo cual buscaron aliarse con la resistencia insurgente. Agustín de Iturbide dirigió el brazo militar de los conspiradores, y a principios de 1821 pudo encontrarse con Vicente Guerrero. Ambos proclamaron el Plan de Iguala, que convocó a la unión de todas las facciones insurgentes y contó con el apoyo de la aristocracia y el clero de Nueva España. Finalmente, la independencia de México se consumó el 27 de septiembre de 1821. 483px-Acta_Independencia_Mexico_1821

Tras esto, Nueva España se convirtió en el Imperio Mexicano, una efímera monarquía católica que dio paso a una república federal en 1823, entre conflictos internos y la separación de América Central.

Después de algunos intentos de reconquista, incluyendo la expedición de Isidro Barradas en 1829, España reconoció la independencia de México en 1836, tras el fallecimiento del monarca Fernando VII.

El Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano es el documento fundador de dicho imperio y por ende, de la nación mexicana.

Un día después de la entrada del Ejército Trigarante a la ciudad de México, el 28 de septiembre de 1821, Agustín de Iturbide ordenó que la Suprema Junta Provisional Gubernativa sesionase temprano para elegir al Presidente de la Regencia del Imperio y por la tarde suscribiera el Acta de Independencia de la nueva nación

Fuentes: 200 años orgullosamente Mexicanos, http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/

Independencia de México,http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independencia_de_M%C3%A9xico

Independencia de México, http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!225.entry

Etapas de la Independencia de México,http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!603.entry

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Las Posadas

December 16, 2009

Las “Posadas” son fiestas populares que en México se celebran durante los nueve días antes de Navidad, entre el día 16 al 24 de Diciembre. Las “Posadas” es una de las tradiciones mexicanas mas arraigadas y representativas. Sin duda alguna “las Posadas” con todos los elementos que se involucran la piñata, la colación, el nacimiento, los santos peregrinos, la procesión, los aguinaldos, la letanía, el ponche de frutas y no puede faltar la música y el baile que se volvieron parte de esta celebración en el México actual.

Historia: ©Jasanone 2009 "Nacimiento"

Su origen se remonta a los tiempos de la conquista, cuando los españoles llegaron a México, los aztecas creían que durante el solsticio de invierno, el dios Quetzalcóatl (el sol viejo) bajaba a visitarlos. Cuarenta días antes de la fiesta, compraban los mercaderes a un esclavo en buenas condiciones y lo vestían con los ropajes del mismo dios Quetzalcóatl. Antes de vestirlo, lo purificaban lavándolo. Salían con él a la ciudad y él iba cantando y bailando para ser reconocido como un dios. Las mujeres y los niños le ofrecían ofrendas. En la noche, lo enjaulaban y lo alimentaban muy bien. 

Nueve días antes de la fiesta, venían ante él dos "ancianos muy venerables del templo" y se humillaban ante él. Durante la ceremonia, le decían: "Señor, sabrás que de aquí a nueve días se te acabará este trabajo de bailar y cantar porque entonces has de morir". Él debía responder: "Que sea muy en hora buena". Llegado el día de la fiesta, a media noche, después de honrarlo con música e incienso, lo tomaban los sacrificadores y le sacaban el corazón para ofrecérselo a la luna. Ese día en los templos se hacían grandes ceremonias, dirigidas por los sacerdotes, que incluían ritos y bailables sagrados, representando la llegada de Quetzalcóatl, así como ofrendas y sacrificios humanos en honor a él.

Durante el mes de diciembre, no sólo festejaban a Quetzalcóatl, sino que también celebraban las fiestas en honor a Huitzilopochtli. Estas fiestas duraban veinte días, iniciaban el 6 de diciembre y terminaban el 26 del mismo mes, eran fiestas solemnes que estaban precedidas por 4 días de ayuno y en las que se coronaba al dios Huitzilopochtli poniendo banderas en los árboles frutales. Esto es a lo que llamaban el "levantamiento de banderas". En el gran templo ponían el estandarte del dios y le rendían culto.

El pueblo se congregaba en los patios de los templos, iluminados por enormes fogatas para esperar la llegada del solsticio de invierno. El 24 de diciembre por la noche y al día siguiente, 25 de diciembre, había fiestas en todas las casas. Se ofrecía a los invitados una rica comida y unas estatuas pequeñas de pasta llamada "tzoatl".

Los misioneros españoles que llegaron a México a finales del siglo XVI, aprovecharon estas costumbres religiosas para inculcar en los indígenas el espíritu evangélico y dieron a las fiestas aztecas un sentido cristianos, lo que serviría como preparación para recibir a Jesús en su corazón el día de Navidad.

En 1587 el superior del convento de San Agustín de Acolman, Fray Diego de Soria, obtuvo del Papa Sixto V, un permiso que autorizaba en la nueva España la celebración de unas Misas llamadas "de aguinaldos" del 16 al 24 de diciembre. En estas Misas, se intercalaban pasajes y escenas de la Navidad. Para hacerlas más atractivas y amenas, se les agregaron luces de bengala, cohetes y villancicos y posteriormente, la piñata.

En San Agustín de Acolman, con los misioneros agustinos, fue donde tuvieron origen las posadas. Los misioneros convocaban al pueblo al atrio de las iglesias y conventos y ahí rezaban una novena, que se iniciaba con el rezo del Santo Rosario, acompañada de cantos y representaciones basadas en el Evangelio, como recordatorio de la espera del Niño y del peregrinar de José y María de Nazaret a Belén para empadronarse. Las posadas se llevaban a cabo los nueve días previos a la Navidad, simbolizando los nueve meses de espera de María. Al terminar, los monjes repartían a los asistentes fruta y dulces como signo de las gracias que recibían aquellos que aceptaban la doctrina de Jesús.

Las posadas, con el tiempo, se comenzaron a llevar a cabo en barrios y en casas, pasando a la vida familiar. Estas comienzan con el rezo del Rosario y el canto de las letanías. Durante el canto, los asistentes forman dos filas que terminan con 2 niños que llevan unas imágenes de la Santísima Virgen y de San José: los peregrinos que iban a Belén. Al terminar las letanías se dividen en dos grupos: uno entra a la casa y otro pide posada imitando a San José y la Santísima Virgen cuando llegaron a Belén. Los peregrinos reciben acogida por parte del grupo que se encuentra en el interior. Luego sigue la fiesta con el canto de villancicos y se termina rompiendo las piñatas y distribuyendo los "aguinaldos".

Espacio de Memo (Jasan) http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/

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Holydays: History of Christmas

December 3, 2009

 ©jasanone08 Natividad                                    Version en Español

Christmas is one of the

most important festivals of Christianity, along with Easter and Pentecost, which celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem. This feast is celebrated on December 25 by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, and some other Protestant Churches and the Romanian Orthodox Church, and Jan. 7 in other Orthodox churches, as they did not accept the reforms made to the Julian calendar, to spend our current schedule, called the Gregorian. English speakers use the word Christmas, which means “mass of the Christ.” In some Germanic languages, such as German, the holiday is called Weihnachten, which means “night of blessing.” The festivities of Christmas are proposed, as its name suggests, celebrate the nativity (or birth) of Jesus of Nazareth in this world. More about Christmas

Currently, Christmas is a celebration more profane than religious. It’s time for big business and exchanging gifts, meetings and fa©jasanone08 Advientomily dinner’s. In the West celebrated the Rooster’s Mass in churches and cathedrals. In Latin America, rooted in Catholic tradition, especially the celebrated Christmas Eve (December 24) with a family dinner to be prepared for a variety of dishes, desserts and traditional beverages. It is also custom to attend the Rooster’s Mass and holding with fireworks. In Mexico, Christmas Eve is the culmination of a celebration that lasts nine days which is called "las Posadas". They start on December 16 and commemorating the journey of Mary and Joseph’s search for shelter before the birth of Jesus. More about “las Posadas”

 

©jasanone08 Arbol de NavidadTraditional elements of Christmas

v     Christmas Tree: The tradition of adorning the Christmas tree seems that began in Germany and Scandinavia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, spreading later to other European countries. It’s a conifer tree decorated with color ornaments, bright ribbons, stars, lights…etc.

v     The Christmas Dinner: Consists of a feast at midnight, in honor of the birth of Christ, which took place at that time, so similar to the Jewish feast of Passover. Traditionally we eat turkey, cod and other dishes, depending on the venue or the traditions of the family.

v     Christmas Nativity: Consist of the representation of the birth of Jesus, through a model of Bethlehem and its environs, where the main figures are the stable where Jesus was born, the Holy Family, animals and shepherds, the three wise men and a star with a trail that too often placed at the top of the Christmas tree. More about Christmas Nativity

v     Crown Advent: It is a crown made based branches of cypress or pine tied with a red ribbon in which are placed four candles are usually red which marked the four Sundays of Advent before Christmas Day.

v     The carols: There are songs or songs alluding to the birth of Christ or the Holy Family. Sing and hear carols

v     Flower of Christmas Eve: A flower of Mexican origin for decorative use.

v     The Posadas: These are a series of festivities that recall the route from St. Joseph and the Virgin Mary to reach Bethlehem. These celebrations take place from 16 to Dec. 24 in Mexico and Latin America. More about Las Posadas

v     The Piñatas: It consists of an earthenware pot decorated with picks and chopped paper or cardboard figures decorated with colored paper, both filled with candy, fruit and sometimes toys and confetti, which breaks in each of the days of Posadas.

 

©jasanone08 Flor de Nochebuena Links of  interest

Christmas wishes

Christmas and holiday season

The History of Christmas

Apart from the Christian origins of Christmas, this festival has been mixing its religious character in the tradition of family life©jasanone08 Santa Claus, largely due to the popularity of this celebration and marketing.

It is from the nineteenth century when Christmas starts to take hold with the character it has today, because in this century became popular the habit of exchanging gifts, was created to Santa Claus and Christmas cards. Habits that over time the marketing (especially American) would use Christmas to expand the world by giving a character other than religious, and with topics that have little or nothing to do with the traditional Christmas celebration. Send  free Christmas cards

 

 sources:

"Navidad." Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. 9 dic 2008, 19:24 UTC. 10 dic 2008, 01:36 <http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Navidad&oldid=22358410>.

“Que es la Navidad?.”Espacio de Memo. 10 dic 2008 http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!345.entry

“Vamos! a romper piñata”.Espacio de Memo. 10 dic 2008 http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!351.entry

“That it is Christmas?”Jasan’s Life. 10 dic.2008 http://jasan1.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!FCE4363F5CFE3E4C!574.entry

 Versión en Español

http://jasan1.spaces.live.com

 

 

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Top 5 ways to stay calm and reduce stress

October 29, 2009
By: John Halderman

Are you looking for more calm satisfying experience with you daily life?

Do you get frustrated with yourself at the end of the day because you’ve gotten stressed, unfocused or agitated?

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  Are you tired of getting over emotional and worn out.

Whether you are experiencing one or all of these feelings here are my 5 best tips on reducing the unwanted feelings so that you will feel calm and satisfied with yourself each day.$$$   
    

 1. Catch yourself when you exhibit a feeling of behavior that you don’t like and change it.
At first you may not notice the feeling until after you have gone through it, that’s fine.

Think about how you would rather have felt.

Think about how you would rather have handled yourself. Decide how you want to do it next time.

As you continue with this process each day you will find that you will notice more easily what you are doing throughout the day.

You will begin to catch yourself earlier and earlier as you do this.

Eventually, you will be seeing yourself while you are doing it, then stop yourself.

At some point you will be able to notice before you even begin to feel and react in the undesirable way.

Here is where you will actually begin to change the way you react to the situations in your life and change your behavior.

 2. Stay centered all day by refocusing throughout the day.
Develop the habit of paying attention to your mindset as the day goes on.

Several times a day, step away from what you are doing to get re-centered.

Sit down close your eyes and take several long slow deep breaths while imagining the tension washing slowly out of your body.

Notice your breathing getting slower and calmer.

Just think about your breath.

Try to keep from thinking about anything in particular.

It’s ok to not be actively thinking for a while!

 3. Watch out for your expectations.
You are setting yourself up for failure, upset and frustration when you set too many standards as to how you think things should be.

Think about what leads you to getting upset?

Why does it upset you?

Notice that you decide how many things should be, based on your own outlook and desire.

The things others do that are not to your liking, even the things you do that don’t match your expectations.

Ask yourself, really how important is it that they be exactly that way

Ask, who am I to insist that they are that way?

Does it matter that much?

Is it worth getting myself worked up about?

Choose which expectations are really important for you to hold on to and which ones are not.

Holding on to many expectations just complicates your life, with constant judgment.

Simplify your life and reduce the stress!

 4. Delegate.
This applies to your personal life as well as at work.

Most of us think of delegating as a workplace skill, but it can apply personally as well.

We are all very busy these days with our activities and duties.

Trying to fit it all in and get it all accomplished can lead to tension.

For various reasons, many of us have developed the habit of thinking we must do it all ourselves.

Take a look at your situation.

Think about it, really, how important is it that everything must be done perfectly to your standards?

Are you sure there are not other people who can assist you. Are the other people in your life pulling their weight?

Many times we get into habitual ruts that don’t need to be as they are.

Look at what has been, with the eye of reducing the pressure on yourself.

 5. Accept other people as one.
As you think of yourself as different and separate from the rest of mankind, you unknowingly create thinking and behavior that separates you from others.

This kind of separate thinking leads us to think we are superior to others which leads to judgment then selfish thinking and behavior.

We are then having an internal battle with others, which brings on fear, competition and comparison, ending in frustration and anxiety.

Look to discovering how to see yourself as one with all of mankind, not as separate.

Focus on what we have in common rather that the relatively small uniqueness.

 

Author Bio
John Halderman is a writer, speaker and trainer, dedicated to helping people with getting real results with their personal development efforts. He supports strategies, methods, tools and information that actually bridge the gap between information and effective results. Go to www.activepersonaldevelopment.com for free information and newsletter.

Article Source: http://www.ArticleGeek.com

International Day of Climate Action October 24

October 20, 2009

Join me at ><a href=

 

350logo

And what does this 350 number even mean?

350 is the number that leading scientists say is the safe upper limit for carbon dioxide—measured in "Parts Per Million" in our atmosphere. 350 PPM—it’s the number humanity needs to get back to as soon as possible to avoid runaway climate change.   read more about climate change

The science is clear: global warming is happening faster than ever and humans are responsible. Global warming is caused by releasing what are called greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The most common greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide. Many of the activities we do every day like turn the lights on, cook food, or heat or cool our homes rely on energy sources like coal and oil that emit carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases. This is a major problem because global warming destabilizes the delicate balance that makes life on this planet possible. Just a few degrees in temperature can completely change the world as we know it, and threaten the lives of millions of people around the world. But don’t give up hope! You can help stop global warming by taking action here at 350.org.

We need an international agreement to reduce carbon emissions fast, and 2009 might be our best shot.

The United Nations is working on a global climate treaty, which is supposed to be completed in December of 2009 at a conference in Copenhagen, Denmark. But the current plans for the treaty are much too weak to get us back to safety. This treaty needs to put a high enough price on carbon that we stop using so much. It also needs to ensure poor countries a fair chance to develop.

visit the official site of Copenhagen Climate Council

This year, we can create a grassroots movement connected by the web and active all over the world.

We can hold our decision-makers accountable to producing a treaty that is strong, equitable, and grounded in the latest science. On 24 October, we’re holding a Global Day of Climate Action to do just this.

If this global movement succeeds, we can get the world on track to get back to 350 and back to climate safety. It won’t be easy, that’s why we need all the help we can get.

watch videos about 350 campaign

 Join me at ><a href=

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Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza

April 25, 2009

var addthis_pub=”jasanone”;

 

800px-Sow_with_piglet

                                                                                         Leer este articulo en español

1. Pandemic influenza is different from avian influenza.

Avian influenza refers to a large group of different influenza viruses that primarily affect birds. On rare occasions, these bird viruses can infect other species, including pigs and humans. The vast majority of avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans.

For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Once this adaptation occurs, it will no longer be a bird virus–it will be a human influenza virus. Influenza pandemics are caused by new influenza viruses that have adapted to humans.

2. Influenza pandemics are recurring events.

An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. Three pandemics occurred in the previous century: “Spanish influenza” in 1918, “Asian influenza” in 1957, and “Hong Kong influenza” in 1968. The 1918 pandemic killed an estimated 40–50 million people worldwide. That pandemic, which was exceptional, is considered one of the deadliest disease events in human history. Subsequent pandemics were much milder, with an estimated 2 million deaths in 1957 and 1 million deaths in 1968.

A pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges and starts spreading as easily as normal influenza – by coughing and sneezing. Because the virus is new, the human immune system will have no pre-existing immunity. This makes it likely that people who contract pandemic influenza will experience more serious disease than that caused by normal influenza.

3. The world may be on the brink of another pandemic.

Health experts have been monitoring a new and extremely severe influenza virus – the H5N1 strain – for almost eight years. The H5N1 strain first infected humans in Hong Kong in 1997, causing 18 cases, including six deaths. Since mid-2003, this virus has caused the largest and most severe outbreaks in poultry on record. In December 2003, infections in people exposed to sick birds were identified.

Since then, over 100 human cases have been laboratory confirmed in four Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Viet Nam), and more than half of these people have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults. Fortunately, the virus does not jump easily from birds to humans or spread readily and sustainably among humans. Should H5N1 evolve to a form as contagious as normal influenza, a pandemic could begin.

4. All countries will be affected.

Once a fully contagious virus emerges, its global spread is considered inevitable. Countries might, through measures such as border closures and travel restrictions, delay arrival of the virus, but cannot stop it. The pandemics of the previous century encircled the globe in 6 to 9 months, even when most international travel was by ship. Given the speed and volume of international air travel today, the virus could spread more rapidly, possibly reaching all continents in less than 3 months.

5. Widespread illness will occur.

Because most people will have no immunity to the pandemic virus, infection and illness rates are expected to be higher than during seasonal epidemics of normal influenza. Current projections for the next pandemic estimate that a substantial percentage of the world’s population will require some form of medical care. Few countries have the staff, facilities, equipment, and hospital beds needed to cope with large numbers of people who suddenly fall ill.

6. Medical supplies will be inadequate.

Supplies of vaccines and antiviral drugs – the two most important medical interventions for reducing illness and deaths during a pandemic – will be inadequate in all countries at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter. Inadequate supplies of vaccines are of particular concern, as vaccines are considered the first line of defence for protecting populations. On present trends, many developing countries will have no access to vaccines throughout the duration of a pandemic.

7. Large numbers of deaths will occur.

Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. All estimates of the number of deaths are purely speculative.

WHO has used a relatively conservative estimate – from 2 million to 7.4 million deaths – because it provides a useful and plausible planning target. This estimate is based on the comparatively mild 1957 pandemic. Estimates based on a more virulent virus, closer to the one seen in 1918, have been made and are much higher. However, the 1918 pandemic was considered exceptional.

8. Economic and social disruption will be great.

High rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Past pandemics have spread globally in two and sometimes three waves. Not all parts of the world or of a single country are expected to be severely affected at the same time. Social and economic disruptions could be temporary, but may be amplified in today’s closely interrelated and interdependent systems of trade and commerce. Social disruption may be greatest when rates of absenteeism impair essential services, such as power, transportation, and communications.

9. Every country must be prepared.

WHO has issued a series of recommended strategic actions [pdf 113kb] for responding to the influenza pandemic threat. The actions are designed to provide different layers of defence that reflect the complexity of the evolving situation. Recommended actions are different for the present phase of pandemic alert, the emergence of a pandemic virus, and the declaration of a pandemic and its subsequent international spread.

10. WHO will alert the world when the pandemic threat increases.

WHO works closely with ministries of health and various public health organizations to support countries’ surveillance of circulating influenza strains. A sensitive surveillance system that can detect emerging influenza strains is essential for the rapid detection of a pandemic virus.

Six distinct phases have been defined to facilitate pandemic preparedness planning, with roles defined for governments, industry, and WHO. The present situation is categorized as phase 3: a virus new to humans is causing infections, but does not spread easily from one person to another. read more about influenza

source: World Health Organization (OMS)

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Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza

April 25, 2009

var addthis_pub=”jasanone”;

 

800px-Sow_with_piglet

                                                                                         Leer este articulo en español

1. Pandemic influenza is different from avian influenza.

Avian influenza refers to a large group of different influenza viruses that primarily affect birds. On rare occasions, these bird viruses can infect other species, including pigs and humans. The vast majority of avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. An influenza pandemic happens when a new subtype emerges that has not previously circulated in humans.

For this reason, avian H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential, since it might ultimately adapt into a strain that is contagious among humans. Once this adaptation occurs, it will no longer be a bird virus–it will be a human influenza virus. Influenza pandemics are caused by new influenza viruses that have adapted to humans.

2. Influenza pandemics are recurring events.

An influenza pandemic is a rare but recurrent event. Three pandemics occurred in the previous century: “Spanish influenza” in 1918, “Asian influenza” in 1957, and “Hong Kong influenza” in 1968. The 1918 pandemic killed an estimated 40–50 million people worldwide. That pandemic, which was exceptional, is considered one of the deadliest disease events in human history. Subsequent pandemics were much milder, with an estimated 2 million deaths in 1957 and 1 million deaths in 1968.

A pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges and starts spreading as easily as normal influenza – by coughing and sneezing. Because the virus is new, the human immune system will have no pre-existing immunity. This makes it likely that people who contract pandemic influenza will experience more serious disease than that caused by normal influenza.

3. The world may be on the brink of another pandemic.

Health experts have been monitoring a new and extremely severe influenza virus – the H5N1 strain – for almost eight years. The H5N1 strain first infected humans in Hong Kong in 1997, causing 18 cases, including six deaths. Since mid-2003, this virus has caused the largest and most severe outbreaks in poultry on record. In December 2003, infections in people exposed to sick birds were identified.

Since then, over 100 human cases have been laboratory confirmed in four Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Viet Nam), and more than half of these people have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults. Fortunately, the virus does not jump easily from birds to humans or spread readily and sustainably among humans. Should H5N1 evolve to a form as contagious as normal influenza, a pandemic could begin.

4. All countries will be affected.

Once a fully contagious virus emerges, its global spread is considered inevitable. Countries might, through measures such as border closures and travel restrictions, delay arrival of the virus, but cannot stop it. The pandemics of the previous century encircled the globe in 6 to 9 months, even when most international travel was by ship. Given the speed and volume of international air travel today, the virus could spread more rapidly, possibly reaching all continents in less than 3 months.

5. Widespread illness will occur.

Because most people will have no immunity to the pandemic virus, infection and illness rates are expected to be higher than during seasonal epidemics of normal influenza. Current projections for the next pandemic estimate that a substantial percentage of the world’s population will require some form of medical care. Few countries have the staff, facilities, equipment, and hospital beds needed to cope with large numbers of people who suddenly fall ill.

6. Medical supplies will be inadequate.

Supplies of vaccines and antiviral drugs – the two most important medical interventions for reducing illness and deaths during a pandemic – will be inadequate in all countries at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter. Inadequate supplies of vaccines are of particular concern, as vaccines are considered the first line of defence for protecting populations. On present trends, many developing countries will have no access to vaccines throughout the duration of a pandemic.

7. Large numbers of deaths will occur.

Historically, the number of deaths during a pandemic has varied greatly. Death rates are largely determined by four factors: the number of people who become infected, the virulence of the virus, the underlying characteristics and vulnerability of affected populations, and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Accurate predictions of mortality cannot be made before the pandemic virus emerges and begins to spread. All estimates of the number of deaths are purely speculative.

WHO has used a relatively conservative estimate – from 2 million to 7.4 million deaths – because it provides a useful and plausible planning target. This estimate is based on the comparatively mild 1957 pandemic. Estimates based on a more virulent virus, closer to the one seen in 1918, have been made and are much higher. However, the 1918 pandemic was considered exceptional.

8. Economic and social disruption will be great.

High rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption. Past pandemics have spread globally in two and sometimes three waves. Not all parts of the world or of a single country are expected to be severely affected at the same time. Social and economic disruptions could be temporary, but may be amplified in today’s closely interrelated and interdependent systems of trade and commerce. Social disruption may be greatest when rates of absenteeism impair essential services, such as power, transportation, and communications.

9. Every country must be prepared.

WHO has issued a series of recommended strategic actions [pdf 113kb] for responding to the influenza pandemic threat. The actions are designed to provide different layers of defence that reflect the complexity of the evolving situation. Recommended actions are different for the present phase of pandemic alert, the emergence of a pandemic virus, and the declaration of a pandemic and its subsequent international spread.

10. WHO will alert the world when the pandemic threat increases.

WHO works closely with ministries of health and various public health organizations to support countries’ surveillance of circulating influenza strains. A sensitive surveillance system that can detect emerging influenza strains is essential for the rapid detection of a pandemic virus.

Six distinct phases have been defined to facilitate pandemic preparedness planning, with roles defined for governments, industry, and WHO. The present situation is categorized as phase 3: a virus new to humans is causing infections, but does not spread easily from one person to another. read more about influenza

source: World Health Organization (OMS)

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