Archive for the ‘History’ category

Bicentenario de la Independencia de México 200 años de libertad.

September 10, 2010

Este año México celebra el bicentenario de su independencia, al igual que  Colombia, Argentina, Chile y Venezuela.

 

El proceso de la independencia de México fue uno de los más largos de América Latina. La lucha duró once años, la   independencia de México se consumó el 27 de septiembre de 1821. La Nueva España permaneció bajo el control de la Corona por unos tres siglos. Sin embargo, a finales del siglo XVIII, ciertos cambios en la estructura social, económica y política de la colonia llevaron a una élite ilustrada de novohispanos a reflexionar acerca de su relación con España. Sin subestimar la influencia de la Ilustración, la Revolución Francesa ni la independencia de Estados Unidos, el hecho que llevó a la élite criolla a comenzar el movimiento emancipador fue la ocupación francesa de España, en 1808. Hay que recordar que en ese año, Carlos IV y Fernando VII abdicaron sucesivamente en favor de José Bonaparte, de modo que España quedó como una especie de protectorado francés.

      Ligas de interes:

http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/ http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/

              
GritoBicentenariohttp://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/15septiembre/

MiguelHidalgo estandarte

El 16 de septiembre de 1810, llevando un estandarte con la imagen de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, patrona de México, Hidalgo lanzó el llamado grito de Dolores que inició la revuelta. Una vez congregada la población frente a la iglesia, el cura Hidalgo pronuncia un emotivo sermón, al final del cual grita: "¡Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe!, ¡Abajo el mal gobierno!”

El movimiento independentista mexicano tiene como marco la Ilustración y las revoluciones liberales de la última parte del siglo XVIII. Por esa época la élite ilustrada comenzaba a reflexionar acerca de las relaciones de España con sus colonias. Los cambios en la estructura social y política derivados de las reformas borbónicas, a los que se sumó una profunda crisis económica en Nueva España, también generaron un malestar entre algunos segmentos de la población.

La ocupación francesa de la metrópoli en 1808 desencadenó en Nueva España una crisis política que desembocó en el movimiento armado. En ese año, el rey Carlos IV y Fernando VII abdicaron sucesivamente en favor de Napoleón Bonaparte, que dejó la corona de España a su hermano José Bonaparte. Como respuesta, el ayuntamiento de México —con apoyo del virrey José de Iturrigaray— reclamó la soberanía en ausencia del rey legítimo; la reacción condujo a un golpe de Estado contra el virrey y llevó a la cárcel a los cabecillas del movimiento.

Independencia Nacional. Bicentenario México 2010

A pesar de la derrota de los criollos en la Ciudad de México en 1808, en otras ciudades de Nueva España se reunieron pequeños grupos de conjurados que pretendieron seguir los pasos del ayuntamiento de México. Tal fue el caso de la conjura de Valladolid, descubierta en 1809 y cuyos participantes fueron puestos en prisión. En 1810, los conspiradores de Querétaro estuvieron a punto de correr la misma suerte pero, al verse descubiertos, optaron por tomar las armas el 16 de septiembre en compañía de los habitantes indígenas y campesinos del pueblo de Dolores (Guanajuato), convocados por el cura Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

A partir de 1810, el movimiento independentista pasó por varias etapas, pues los sucesivos líderes fueron puestos en prisión o ejecutados por las fuerzas leales a España. Al principio se reivindicaba la soberanía de Fernando VII sobre España y sus colonias, pero los líderes asumieron después posturas más radicales, incluyendo cuestiones de orden social como la abolición de la esclavitud. José María Morelos y Pavón convocó a las provincias independentistas a conformar el Congreso de Anáhuac, que dotó al movimiento insurgente de un marco legal propio. Tras la derrota de Morelos, el movimiento se redujo a una guerra de guerrillas. Hacia 1820, sólo quedaban algunos núcleos rebeldes, sobre todo en la sierra Madre del Sur y en Veracruz.  Leer mas: Etapas de la Independencia de México

La rehabilitación de la Constitución de Cádiz en 1820 alentó el cambio de postura de las élites novohispanas, que hasta ahí habían respaldado el dominio español. Al ver afectados sus intereses, los criollos monarquistas decidieron apoyar la independencia de Nueva España, para lo cual buscaron aliarse con la resistencia insurgente. Agustín de Iturbide dirigió el brazo militar de los conspiradores, y a principios de 1821 pudo encontrarse con Vicente Guerrero. Ambos proclamaron el Plan de Iguala, que convocó a la unión de todas las facciones insurgentes y contó con el apoyo de la aristocracia y el clero de Nueva España. Finalmente, la independencia de México se consumó el 27 de septiembre de 1821. 483px-Acta_Independencia_Mexico_1821

Tras esto, Nueva España se convirtió en el Imperio Mexicano, una efímera monarquía católica que dio paso a una república federal en 1823, entre conflictos internos y la separación de América Central.

Después de algunos intentos de reconquista, incluyendo la expedición de Isidro Barradas en 1829, España reconoció la independencia de México en 1836, tras el fallecimiento del monarca Fernando VII.

El Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano es el documento fundador de dicho imperio y por ende, de la nación mexicana.

Un día después de la entrada del Ejército Trigarante a la ciudad de México, el 28 de septiembre de 1821, Agustín de Iturbide ordenó que la Suprema Junta Provisional Gubernativa sesionase temprano para elegir al Presidente de la Regencia del Imperio y por la tarde suscribiera el Acta de Independencia de la nueva nación

Fuentes: 200 años orgullosamente Mexicanos, http://www.bicentenario.gob.mx/

Independencia de México,http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independencia_de_M%C3%A9xico

Independencia de México, http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!225.entry

Etapas de la Independencia de México,http://jasan1spanish.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!49BF390D536D7A69!603.entry

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-PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA

January 22, 2009

 

 

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 Versión en Español

Official portrait of President-elect Barack Obama on Jan. 13, 2009.

(Photo by Pete Souza)

Barack H. Obama is the 44th President of the United States.

His story is the American story — values from the heartland, a middle-class upbringing in a strong family, hard work and education as the means of getting ahead, and the conviction that a life so blessed should be lived in service to others.

With a father from Kenya and a mother from Kansas, President Obama was born in Hawaii on August 4, 1961. He was raised with help from his grandfather, who served in Patton’s army, and his grandmother, who worked her way up from the secretarial pool to middle management at a bank.

After working his way through college with the help of scholarships and student loans, President Obama moved to Chicago, where he worked with a group of churches to help rebuild communities devastated by the closure of local steel plants.

He went on to attend law school, where he became the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review. Upon graduation, he returned to Chicago to help lead a voter registration drive, teach constitutional law at the University of Chicago, and remain active in his community.

President Obama’s years of public service are based around his unwavering belief in the ability to unite people around a politics of purpose. In the Illinois State Senate, he passed the first major ethics reform in 25 years, cut taxes for working families, and expanded health care for children and their parents. As a United States Senator, he reached across the aisle to pass groundbreaking lobbying reform, lock up the world’s most dangerous weapons, and bring transparency to government by putting federal spending online.

He was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and sworn in on January 20, 2009. He and his wife, Michelle, are the proud parents of two daughters, Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7

Fuente: “Presidente Barack Obama” the White House president Barak Obama 22 Jan 2009 http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/

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Martin Luther King, Jr. Day “I have a dream..”.

January 13, 2009

 

Martin Luther King Jr. Day is a United States holiday marking the birthdate of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., observed on the third Monday of January each year, around the time of King’s birthday, January 15. It is one of four United States federal holidays to commemorate an individual person.

Full version of Martin Luther King’s famous "I have a dream" speech.

King was the chief spokesman of the nonviolent civil rights movement, which successfully protested racial discrimination in federal and state law. He was assassinated in 1968.        

Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr.

The campaign for a federal holiday in King’s honor began soon after his assassination. Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed in 1986. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2006.

read “ I have a dream speech”

Martin Luther King Jr. Day was founded as a holiday promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations.

After King’s death, United States Representative John Conyers (D-Michigan) introduced a bill in Congress to

" I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character."
Martin Luther King, Jr.

make King’s birthday a national holiday. The bill first came to a vote in the    U.S. House of Representatives in 1979. However, it fell five votes short of the number needed for passage. Two of the main arguments mentioned by opponents were that a paid holiday for federal employees would be too expensive, and that a holiday to honor a private citizen would be contrary to longstanding tradition (King had never held public office).

 

see more Martin Luther King,Jr. quotes

Later, The King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public. The success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 article in The Nation as "the largest petition in favor of an issue in U.S. history." At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. It was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986.

The bill established the Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Holiday Commission to oversee observance of the holiday, and Coretta Scott King was made a member of this commission for life by United States President George H. W. Bush in May, 1989.  view related  videos about Martin Luther King, Jr.

sources:

"Martin Luther King, Jr. Day." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 13 Jan 2009, 01:14 UTC. 13 Jan 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Martin_Luther_King,_Jr._Day&oldid=263711822>.

“Martin Luther King,Jr.Quotes”The holiday spot.13Jan2009   <http://www.theholidayspot.com/martin_luther_king_day/quotes.htm>.

 

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History of Thanksgiving Day

November 20, 2008

Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November, at the end of the harvest season, is an annual American Federal holiday to express thanks for one’s material and spiritual possessions. The period from Thanksgiving Day to New Year’s Day often is called the holiday season. Most people celebrate by gathering at home with family or friends for a holiday feast. Read more about Thanksgiving

The first thanksgiving”, 1621the Pilgrims at Plymouth

j0309568  Squanto, a Patuxet Native American who resided with the Wampanoag tribe, taught the Pilgrims how to catch eel and grow corn and served as an interpreter for them (Squanto had learned English as a slave in Europe and travels in England). The Pilgrims set apart a day to celebrate at Plymouth immediately after their first harvest, in 1621. At the time, this was not regarded as a Thanksgiving observance; harvest festivals were existing parts of English and Wampanoag tradition alike. Several colonists have personal accounts of the 1621 feast in Plymouth, Massachusetts. There are 2 primary sources for the events of autumn 1621 in Plymouth : Edward Winslow writing in Mourt’s Relation and William Bradford writing in Of Plymouth Plantation

"our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together, after we had gathered the fruits of our labors; they four in one day killed as much fowl, as with a little help beside, served the Company almost a week, at which time amongst other Recreations, we exercised our Arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five Deer, which they brought to the Plantation and bestowed on our Governor, and upon the Captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful, as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plenty." -Edward Winslow, Mourt’s Relation

  "They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass j0384740and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck of meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to that proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports." -William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation more about Thanksgiving

During the American Revolutionary War the Continental Congress appointed one or more thanksgiving days each year, each time recommending to the executives of the various states the observance of these days in their states. The First National Proclamation of Thanksgiving was given by the Continental Congress in 1777.

  Sources:

-Thanksgiving (United States)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanksgiving_(United_States)

-Pilgrim Hall Museum

http://www.pilgrimhall.org/plgrmhll.htm

Check out these sites talking about Thanksgiving:

The history of thanksgiving

Thanksgiving day

A History of Thanksgiving

 

-Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)

November 12, 2008

The November 20 is celebrated 98 anniversary of the Mexican Revolution, seen as the first social revolution of the twentieth century, and Mexicans are preparing for the commemoration of the centenary of the beginning of this in 2010. The revolutionary struggle has as antecedent the interview in March 1908 that then-President Porfirio Díaz with almost thirty years in power gave the American journalist James Creelman, Díaz In this interview he said that the Mexican people and was fit for democracy, and he promised to retire to private life once they complete their term of government in 1910:

"I waited patiently on the day the Mexican people were prepared to select and change their government in every election without danPorfirio Diazger of armed revolutions, without compromising the national credit and without impeding the progress of the country. I think that day has arrived. If in the republic, he added, were to arise an opposition party, it would look like a blessing and not as an evil, and whether that party to develop power, not to exploit, but to lead, I would welcome it, and I would support enshrine the successful inauguration of a fully democratic government … "

 

The news filled with optimism to many people, who immediately began to organize themselves to participate in the elections of 1910. Several political parties emerged, including "National Party Antirreeleccionista" this was founded on May 22, 1909, with the initiative of Francisco I. Madero and Emilio Vazquez Gomez, in Mexico City. Another of them both with the Democratic Party trend revolutionary, while the trend Porfirista groups, such as the National Party and the Party Porfirista Scientific opted to reorganize to better act before the imminence of an election campaign
Madero had already been made famous by then, due to the publication of his book entitled "Presidential Succession in 1910", which did a study of the political situation in Mexico, with some revolutionary approach, this was presented as a candidate for Presidency of the Republic in the Independent National Convention, held in Mexico City in April 1910. The conventions elaborated a program that would serve as a banner of struggle, and in which the principles of "no reelection" of the President and Governors, and "effective suffrage," were essential.
In his capacity as president of the Republic, Francisco I. Madero made a new tour policy for the Republic, arousing great enthusiasm for their approaches of opposition to the regime of Porfirio Díaz, aimed to achieve this not by violence but by the citizens’ participation in the elections. The government was alarmed at the sight of such a situation and seized a Madero, accusing him of crimes and outrages upon the authority of attempted rebellion in Monterrey, then driving to San Luis Potosi to further the process, their defense was able to leave free on bail, on condition that they not leave the city. In this tense atmosphere the elections took place in mid-1910, in which there were several irregularities and elected Porfirio Díaz and Ramon Corral, who occupy the posts of president and vice president respectively for the period 1910-1914.
Realizing that a peaceful solution was impossible, Francisco I. Madero, ready to launch an armed uprising, escaped from San Luis Potosi to San Antonio, Texas, where he proclaimed the Plan de San Luis, on October 5, 1910, which stated:

Francisco I Madero 

“Echoing the national will declare illegal the last election and therefore leaving the Republic without legitimate rulers, temporarily assume the presidency of the republic, while the people appointed under the law to their rulers”

He then stated in Article 7 of that plan, "On November 20, from six in the afternoon onwards, all citizens of the Republic shall take up arms to yield power to the authorities that govern us today." That day, however, did not happen virtually nothing, except the uprising on the part of Toribio Ortega and a group of 60 warlords in Knife Stopped, Chihuahua on June 14 and in Puebla on June 18. The rest of the outbreaks rebels erupted in the following days.
The Mexican Revolution officially ended with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1917, although outbreaks of violence would continue until the end of the decade of the twenties. The movement had a great impact on the business workers, agricultural anarchists at the international level since the Constitution of the United Mexican States, 1917 was the first in the world to recognize the social guarantees and labor rights groups. More….

Fuentes:http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revoluci%C3%B3n_Mexicana

http://www.elbalero.gob.mx/historia/html/rev/antecede.html

http://jasan1.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!FCE4363F5CFE3E4C!543.entry

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Versión en Español/ Spanish version

 

Day of the Dead in Mexico

October 19, 2008

 pasadena 113 jasanone

The celebration of the Day of the Dead in Mexico, takes place on November 1st and 2nd, as each year the Mexicans are preparing to celebrate their loved it and went and that according to religious belief and popular to be returned once more with their loved ones, that will be waiting with altars adorned with flowers and food to the deceased that liked to enjoy life. For the Mexican live with death is an act of faith and belief in it will feel again the presence of the dead among the living, contrary to what we believe to be Mexican likes this coexistence and even mocks her.

"For the inhabitant of New York, Pajasanoneris or London, death is never word that is pronounced because it burns the lips. The Mexican, however, frequents, mockery, the caresses, sleeps with it, celebrates, is one of his favorite toys and his love more permanent. True, there are perhaps in their attitude as much fear in the other, but at least not hide or hide; contemplates the face to face with patience, disdain or irony. "

Octavio Paz

So we can see in the engravings of Jose Guadalupe Posada, a clear demonstration of this strange relationship with death and the people who welcomed making and eating the sugar “calaveritas” and “pan de muerto”, to laugh at the death of created literature skulls, where versed in highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the living.

jasanone “¡Ay muerte, no te me acerques, que estoy temblando de miedo!”

Each of the current population of Mexico has traditions and way of expressing their concept of the cult of death, these activities vary according to region, the customs of the locality, and the socioeconomic level of it.
The Indian Feast Day of the Dead has been proclaimed Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. This recognition is awarded by the Organization of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). More…

http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id_seccion=420

http://culturaspopulareseindigenas.gob.mx/noticias_muertos.htm

http://sepiensa.org.mx/contenidos/muertos/muertos.htm

http://jasan1.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!FCE4363F5CFE3E4C!526.entry

 

Spanish version/Versión en español

 

Columbus Day

October 6, 2008

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M any countries in the New World and elsewhere celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus‘s arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492. The day is celebrated as Columbus Day in the United States, as Día de la Raza (Day of the Race) in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, and Uruguay , as Día de las Culturas (Day of the Cultures) in Costa Rica, as Discovery Day in The Bahamas and Columbia, as Día de la Hispanidad (Hispanic Day) and National Day in Spain, and as Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) in Venezuela.

In the fifteenth century, an obscure Italian seafarer named Christopher Columbus became convinced that it was possible to reach the East from Europe by sailing westward across the Atlantic and that this route would be shorter than traveling around Africa; he underestimated the size of the Earth and overestimated the size and eastward extension of Asia. After eight years of negotiations, he convinced Queen Isabella of Spain to support his enterprise. He finally set out in three small ships and, on October 12th, 1492. Although Christopher Columbus was perhaps not the first to discover America, as has so often been claimed, he was the one to bring about the first real contact and interaction between Renaissance Europe and the American continent with its various civilizations; and that has shaped and changed world history in countless ways. Over 500 years later, this date is still celebrated, lamented, and debated.

Since 1971, the holiday has been commemorated in the U.S. on the second Monday in October It is generally observed today by banks, the bond market, the US Postal Service and other federal agencies, most state government offices, and many school districts; however, most businesses and stock exchanges remain open.

Sources: http://worldculturenet.com/2006/10/09/columbus-day-and-dia-de-la-raza/

http://zedillo.presidencia.gob.mx/welcome/PAGES/culture/note_12oct.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%ADa_de_la_Raza

Spanish version/Versión en español