-Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
The November 20 is celebrated 98 anniversary of the Mexican Revolution, seen as the first social revolution of the twentieth century, and Mexicans are preparing for the commemoration of the centenary of the beginning of this in 2010. The revolutionary struggle has as antecedent the interview in March 1908 that then-President Porfirio Díaz with almost thirty years in power gave the American journalist James Creelman, Díaz In this interview he said that the Mexican people and was fit for democracy, and he promised to retire to private life once they complete their term of government in 1910:
"I waited patiently on the day the Mexican people were prepared to select and change their government in every election without danger of armed revolutions, without compromising the national credit and without impeding the progress of the country. I think that day has arrived. If in the republic, he added, were to arise an opposition party, it would look like a blessing and not as an evil, and whether that party to develop power, not to exploit, but to lead, I would welcome it, and I would support enshrine the successful inauguration of a fully democratic government … "
The news filled with optimism to many people, who immediately began to organize themselves to participate in the elections of 1910. Several political parties emerged, including "National Party Antirreeleccionista" this was founded on May 22, 1909, with the initiative of Francisco I. Madero and Emilio Vazquez Gomez, in Mexico City. Another of them both with the Democratic Party trend revolutionary, while the trend Porfirista groups, such as the National Party and the Party Porfirista Scientific opted to reorganize to better act before the imminence of an election campaign
Madero had already been made famous by then, due to the publication of his book entitled "Presidential Succession in 1910", which did a study of the political situation in Mexico, with some revolutionary approach, this was presented as a candidate for Presidency of the Republic in the Independent National Convention, held in Mexico City in April 1910. The conventions elaborated a program that would serve as a banner of struggle, and in which the principles of "no reelection" of the President and Governors, and "effective suffrage," were essential.
In his capacity as president of the Republic, Francisco I. Madero made a new tour policy for the Republic, arousing great enthusiasm for their approaches of opposition to the regime of Porfirio Díaz, aimed to achieve this not by violence but by the citizens’ participation in the elections. The government was alarmed at the sight of such a situation and seized a Madero, accusing him of crimes and outrages upon the authority of attempted rebellion in Monterrey, then driving to San Luis Potosi to further the process, their defense was able to leave free on bail, on condition that they not leave the city. In this tense atmosphere the elections took place in mid-1910, in which there were several irregularities and elected Porfirio Díaz and Ramon Corral, who occupy the posts of president and vice president respectively for the period 1910-1914.
Realizing that a peaceful solution was impossible, Francisco I. Madero, ready to launch an armed uprising, escaped from San Luis Potosi to San Antonio, Texas, where he proclaimed the Plan de San Luis, on October 5, 1910, which stated:
“Echoing the national will declare illegal the last election and therefore leaving the Republic without legitimate rulers, temporarily assume the presidency of the republic, while the people appointed under the law to their rulers”
He then stated in Article 7 of that plan, "On November 20, from six in the afternoon onwards, all citizens of the Republic shall take up arms to yield power to the authorities that govern us today." That day, however, did not happen virtually nothing, except the uprising on the part of Toribio Ortega and a group of 60 warlords in Knife Stopped, Chihuahua on June 14 and in Puebla on June 18. The rest of the outbreaks rebels erupted in the following days.
The Mexican Revolution officially ended with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1917, although outbreaks of violence would continue until the end of the decade of the twenties. The movement had a great impact on the business workers, agricultural anarchists at the international level since the Constitution of the United Mexican States, 1917 was the first in the world to recognize the social guarantees and labor rights groups. More….