Archive for April 2008

Cinco de Mayo

April 28, 2008

 

The “Cinco de Mayo” is mostly celebrated in the United States among the Méxican-American population, especially in California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. The date is perhaps best recognized in the United States as a date to celebrate the culture and experiences of Americans of Mexican ancestry, much as St. Patrick’s Day, Oktoberfest, and the Chinese New Year are used to celebrate those of Irish, German, and Chinese ancestry, respectively. Similar to those holidays, Cinco de Mayo is observed by many Americans regardless of ethnic origin.

Within the United States of America, “Cinco de Mayo” is mistaken for México’s Independence Day. However, “El Grito de Dolores” was a proclamation calling for México’s independence from Spain on September 16 in the year 1810.

First half of Mexican century XIX is shaped by one serious political and social instability, in which the violent conflicts were almost constant. Combined to that the economy it was devastated and, therefore, the country was in bankruptcy; reason why just a short time after assuming the power, the 17 of 1861 July, Benito Juárez declared the impossibility to pay the enormous debts that our country had contracted during the last administrations. Fact that irritated to the most influential European powers: England, Spain and France.

Battle of Puebla  took place the 5 of May of 1862 near the city of Puebla (Mexico), in the attack and defense of the Fort of Loreto and the Fort of Guadalupe, during the French invasion of Mexico. It was an important Mexican victory with global resonance, because it overcame the experienced army more and reputed of the time and it is commemorated in Mexico with the celebration of the Five of May.

BattleofPuebla2Meanwhile, the French army, made up of approximately six thousand men with an excellent preparation; with sophisticated arms; sufficient food and the ammunition, invaded Mexico, the 19 of April of 1862.Desconociendo Treaties of the Solitude and with intentions to attack the capital, it began to move from Veracruz to the center of the country, passing by the City of Puebla, where it will be carried out one of the most famous and bloody battles that the history of Mexico of century XIX recuerde.Ante the threat from attack to the city of Puebla, a young general, of name Ignacio Zaragoza, had all the necessary one to the defense the sovereignty, with the support of other generals like Miguel Negrete and Porfirio Diaz, to the control of an army conformed by 4 thousand 800 men El 5 of May of 1862, began the battle, the thickness of the troops was located in the hill of the Carmen. Nevertheless, Charles Ferdinand Latrillee, Count of Lorencez, that was to the French control of troops, attacked the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe. Nevertheless, the weak Mexican army managed to reject, in three occasions, to the contingent francés.Finalmente, before the dusk, the count of Lorencez announced the retirement of the French troops, thus accepting, the Mexican triumph. General Zaragoza, after to have won the battle, sent a report to president Juárez in whom he said: “the national arms have covered with glory [… ] I can affirm with pride that nor a single moment returned the back to the enemy I exercise Mexican during the long fight that maintained [… ] the French troops behaved with value in the combat and its head with stupidity.” The Mexicans very were hurt by the defeat suffered in the war against the United States, in 1846, in which he was lost more than half of the territory, reason why this great victory gained against the French filled from joy to the town of Mexico and he raised it morally.

http://www.cableducacion.org.mx/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinco_de_Mayo

Spanish version/Versión en español

 

Earth Day

April 20, 2008

 

This spring 2008 we celebrate the 38th anniversary of Earth Day.

earthdaymap

Earth Day is a name used for two different observances, both held annually during spring in the northern hemisphere, and autumn in the southern hemisphere. These are intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth‘s environment. The United Nations celebrates Earth Day, which was founded by John McConnell in 1969, each year on the March equinox, while a global observance originated by Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in, and since January 1970 also called Earth Day, is celebrated in many countries each year on April 22, including the U.S.

History of the April 22 Earth Day

In September 1969, at a conference in Seattle, Washington, U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson announced that in the spring of 1970 there would be a nationwide grassroots demonstration on the environment. Senator Nelson first proposed the nationwide environmental protest to thrust the environment onto the national agenda.” “It was a gamble,” he recalls, “but it worked.” Five months before the first April 22 Earth Day, on Sunday, November 30, 1969, The New York Times carried a lengthy article by Gladwin Hill reporting on the rising tide of environmental events::

“Rising concern about the environmental crisis is sweeping the nation’s campuses with an intensity that may be on its way to eclipsing student discontent over the war in Vietnam…a national day of observance of environmental problems…is being planned for next spring…when a nationwide environmental ‘teach-in’…coordinated from the office of Senator Gaylord Nelson is planned….” Senator Nelson also hired Denis Hayes as the coordinator.

Each year, the April 22 Earth Day marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970. Among other things, 1970 in the United States brought with it the Kent State shootings, the advent of fiber optics, “Bridge over Troubled Water,” Apollo 13, the Beatles‘ last album, the death of Jimi Hendrix, and the meltdown of fuel rods in the Savannah River nuclear plant near Aiken, South Carolina — an incident not acknowledged for 18 years. At the time, Americans were slurping leaded gas through massive V8 sedans. Industry belched out smoke and sludge with little fear of legal consequences or bad press. Air pollution was commonly accepted as the smell of prosperity. Environment was a word that appeared more often in spelling bees than on the evening news. But Earth Day 1970 turned that all around.

On April 22, 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Denis Hayes, the national coordinator, and his youthful staff organized massive coast-to-coast rallies. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. Groups that had been fighting against oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, raw sewage, toxic dumps, pesticides, freeways, the loss of wilderness, and the extinction of wildlife suddenly realized they shared common values.

Mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues onto the world stage. Earth Day on April 22 in 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts worldwide and helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.

As the millennium approached, Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focused on global warming and a push for clean energy. The April 22 Earth Day in 2000 combined the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the Internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 rolled around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board, reaching out to hundreds of millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in Gabon, Africa, for example, while hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., USA.

Earth Day 2000 sent the message loud and clear that citizens the world ’round wanted quick and decisive action on clean energy. Earth Day 2007 was one of the largest Earth Days to date, with an estimated billion people participating in the activities in thousands of places like Kiev, Ukraine; Caracas, Venezuela; Tuvalu; Manila, Philippines; Togo; Madrid, Spain; London; and New York.

Founded by the organizers of the first April 22 Earth Day in 1970, Earth Day Network promotes environmental citizenship and year round progressive action worldwide. Earth Day Network is a driving force steering environmental awareness around the world. Through Earth Day Network, activists connect change in local, national, and global policies. Earth Day Network’s international network reaches over 17,000 organizations in 174 countries, while the domestic program engages 5,000 groups and over 25,000 educators coordinating millions of community development and environmental protection activities throughout the year. Earth Day is the only event celebrated simultaneously around the globe by people of all backgrounds, faiths and nationalities. More than a half billion people participate in Earth Day Network campaigns every year.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Day

Spanish version/Versión en español

Billboard.com Music Charts

April 10, 2008

Billboard.com Music Charts