The global warming is the increase of the temperature of the Earth thanks the fossil fuel use (petroleum, natural gas and methane) and other toxic products that form a gaseous layer in the atmosphere which they prevent that the originating heat of rays of the sun leaves, thus creating what conservatory is known like greenhouse effect.
In opposition to which it could be believed, this effect is a useful and natural phenomenon produced by the same Earth and without him our planet would below cero become a rock congealed with a temperature around -20 ºC.
Through the years, the human beings have increased to the greenhouse effect natural conservatory due to the increase of the gas discharge like carbon dioxide (CO2), derived from the fossil fuel use and the deforestation; the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emitted by conditioned air and aerosols; the methane (CH4) produced by the farming activity and the mining; the nitrogen oxide (N2O) emitted by the fossil fuel use and the deforestation; and ozone (O3) emitted by photochemical and automobiles.
The polluting gases cause that the solar energy is cached in the atmosphere, and only coarse one slight modification of the temperature, so that the delicate balance of the nature is broken. Many of these gases have opened a hole in the ozone layer, that is the mechanism that has the Earth atmosphere to filter originating ultra-violet rays of the sun. This hole has increased 4 times its size from 1980.
Additional to this, the hole has allowed that the solar rays and the emissions ultraviolet enter directly, increasing the heating and causing that arrive at the alive beings causing, in some cases, mutations and in the human beings, cancer in the skin.
This situation is very serious, since as the planet is warmed up the polar helmets melt. Its melting diminishes the amount of heat that can be rejected and therefore the Earth is warmed up more and more.
The consequences will not be uniform geographically. Esteem that the hydrologic cycle is altered by the greater evaporation of the water, causing an increase of rains in the entire planet, affecting the stability of the tropical forests and its biological diversity due to its high degree of vulnerability to changes in the environmental balance.
Another one ecosystem that would be seen very affected would be the chorale reefs, since they contain a genetic diversity that includes a third of all the species of fish that know themselves. Most of these species is in waters whose temperatures average come near to the maximum tolerable without changes in their ecosystem appear.
This imbalance would occur by the increase of the level from the sea when melting the polar helmets and to lower the temperatures in warm zones; in addition, studies predict that the sea could increase its level in 125 meters and 6 meters would be only needed increase to devastate cities like London and New York.
Another serious consequence would be the probable displacement of tropical diseases towards other zones of the planet; for example, the malaria and dengue could extend on a greater proportion of the surface of the Earth, affecting to million people who today are outside their areas of influence.
Many of the present conservationists groups in the world have urged to the leaders of the industrialized countries – that are the main emitters of contamination and therefore main causes of the heating of the planet which they take measures on the matter, having been the Kyoto Protocol of the most concrete and with greater repercussion at the moment.
The Kyoto protocol
The governments of the industrialized countries decided, in 1997, to sign the Kyoto Protocol the Agreement Frame on Climatic Change of the United Nations. The agreement only took effect after 55 nations, that add 55% of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect conservatory, ratified it. At the present time, 129 countries have confirmed it reaching 61.6 % of the emissions, so and as it indicates the barometer of the UN.
The objective of the Kyoto Protocol is to be able to reduce to a 5.2% the gas discharges of global effect conservatory on the levels of 1990 for period 2008-2012. This it is, until the moment, the only international mechanism to begin to do in front of the climatic change and to diminish its impacts.
The take effect of the Protocol means that as of that date:
1) Thirty industrialized countries were legally forced to fulfill the objectives quantitative to reduce or to limit their gas discharges of greenhouse effect conservatory.
2) The international market of carbon will happen to be a legal and practical reality. The regime of “commerce of rights of emission” of the Protocol allows the industrialized countries to mutually buy and to sell emission credits; this exposition, based on the market, will improve the efficiency and yield of cuts of emissions.
3) The Mechanism of clean development will happen of its initial phase to the total operability. The MDL will encourage the investments in projects in countries developing that limit the emissions, at the same time that promotes a sustainable development. UNFCCC/CCNUCC
4) The Bottom for the Adaptation, of the Protocol, established in 2001, will begin to prepare itself to help the countries developing to face the negative effects of the climatic change.
For example, the European Union will have to reduce in 8% its combined emissions and Japan, in 6%. For many countries, the profit of the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol will be a great challenge that will require new policies and expositions.
It is possible to indicate that only four industrialized countries have not ratified the Protocol, that is to say, Australia, Liechtenstein, Monaco and the United States. Australia and the United States have showed that they do not have intention to do it, although, together, they generate more of a third of greenhouse gases conservatory emitted by the industrialized nations. Without them, you consider yourself that the objective of the Protocol is not going to totally reach the repercussion waited for on the climatic change.
The countries developing, among them Mexico, Brazil, China, India and Indonesia, also subscribed the Protocol, although they are formally not forced to pay attention objective of reduction of emissions. Nevertheless, several of them have already obtained good results in their activities related to the climatic change.
On the other hand, the Montreal protocol, that dates from the 16 of September of 1987, talks about to let use the chlorofluorocarbon, gases used in conditioned air systems and of refrigeration, that when they are released to the atmosphere, rises until the superior layers of the same one and destroys the ozone layer, that is not another thing but one of the forms that acquires oxygen and which serves to us as “filter” to resist ultra-violet rays of the Sun These can even cause to skin cancer and blindness, as it is already happening with the marine animals of the Antarctic.