Archive for December 2007

Vamos! a romper piñata.

December 19, 2007

Una de las tradiciones mexicanas mas arraigadas y representativas es sin duda alguna “las posadas” con todos los elementos que se involucran la piñata, la colación, el nacimiento, los santos peregrinos, la procesión, los aguinaldos, la letanía, las velitas que cargan los niños para pedir la posada, el ponche de frutas y no puede faltar la música y el baile que se volvieron parte de esta celebración en el México actual.

Las Posadas

Los primeros misioneros españoles en México, en el siglo XVI, trataron de enseñar a los indios los misterios de nuestra religión por medio de representaciones teatrales parecidas a los “autos de fe” de su país de origen. Se atribuye a Fray Diego de Soria (finales del siglo XVI). Las primeras “jornadas” (como se llamaban entonces), en el convento de Acolman, para recordar el camino de José y María de Nazaret a Belén. La celebración se fue enriqueciendo de la costumbre franciscana de representar con imágenes a José y María. 

De estas celebraciones y de los Autos de Fe europeos surgieron las pastorelas y los cantos para pedir posada.

Estas celebraciones se llamaron también fiestas de aguinaldo, quizá por los pequeños regalos que se daban a los indios que participaban. Poco a poco la celebración salió de las Iglesias a las casas y el canto religioso fue substituido por la música popular. La liturgia se mezcló con el folklore popular, haciendo que estas fiestas se arraigaran en el corazón del pueblo mexicano. Fue en esta época cuando prevaleció el nombre de posadas. Durante el resto de la colonia la costumbre subsistió sin muchas variaciones., así paso al México independiente en el que hasta las crisis del país cedían ante la alegría de las fiestas navideñas.

Las posadas no son otra cosa que la novena de Navidad. Comienzan el 16 de diciembre y terminan el 24. La ceremonia consiste en una procesión desde las Iglesias o en las casas particulares donde se lleva en andas a los Santos Peregrinos, o sea a las imágenes de María y José algunas veces acompañados de un burro o guiados por un ángel. En algunos lugares varias familias con anterioridad se reparten las posadas, es decir cada noche una familia distinta organiza la posada y los peregrinos irán peregrinando de una casa a otra.

Durante la procesión, los participantes iluminados por pequeñas velas caminan detrás de los Santos peregrinos rezando el Santo Rosario. La procesión a diálogo cantado se solicita posada una y otra vez hasta que se abre el portón dando entrada a los Santos Peregrinos.

Luego en los atrios o en los patios se cuelgan y se rompen las piñatas, ollas decoradas que con papel de china toman múltiples formas que se rellenan de frutas, cacahuates y dulces. La forma más común en las piñatas es la estrella de siete picos. Cada pico representa un pecado capital; el golpear y romper cada pico representa vencer al pecado y recibir los dones de Dios representados por la fruta y los dulces. Más tarde la fiesta continúa cuando se ofrece a los comensales una rica merienda de platillos tradicionales de la época. Y la música ameniza el baile.

 

Version en Ingles/English version

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December 2, 2007

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That it is Christmas?

December 1, 2007

Christmas, as we know it today, is a creation of century XIX. The Christmas tree, original of Germanic zones, extended by other areas of Europe and America. The carols were recovered and new ones were made up many (the custom to sing carols, although from old origins, comes fundamentally from century XIX). The Christmas cards did not begin to be used until the decade of 1870, although first of them imprint in London in 1846.

The day of Christmas is the 25 of December, when the Birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem is commemorated according to gospels of San Mateo and San Lucas. After Passover de Resurrection it is  NikonL1 007 the most important celebration of the ecclesiastical year. As the gospels do not mention dates, he is not safe that Jesus was born that day. In fact, the day of Christmas officially was not recognized until year 345, when by influence of San Juan Crisóstomo and San Gregorio Nacianzeno it proclaimed the 25 of December like date of the Natividad. This way it followed the policy of the primitive Church to absorb instead of repressing the existing pagan rites, that from the first times had celebrated the solstice of winter and the arrival of the spring. The pagan celebration more closely associated with new Christmas was the Roman Saturnalia, the 19 of December, in honor of Saturn, God of the agriculture, that was celebrated during seven days of boisterous diversions and banquets. At the same time, a similar, well-known winter was celebrated in the North of Europe celebration of like Yule, in which great trunks adorned with branches and tapes in honor of the Gods were burned to obtain that the Sun shone with more force. At the moment, Christmas is one more a celebration more profane than religious. It is time of great commercial activity and interchange of gifts, familiar meetings and meals. In the West the Mass of rooster in churches and cathedrals is celebrated. In the countries of Latin America, of rooted catholic tradition, the Christmas Eve (24 of December) with a familiar supper is celebrated specially for which they are elaborated a diversity of plates, traditional desserts and drinks. Also one gets used to attending the Mass of rooster and celebrating with rockets and fireworks. In Mexico, the Christmas Eve constitutes the culmination of a celebration that lasts nine days to which it is called “the inns”. These begin the 16 of December and commemorate the trip of Maria and Jose in their sea rch of lodging before the birth of Jesus. In century II of ours it was (100 years after the birth of Christ), the Christians only commemorated Passover de Resurrection, since they considered the moment of the birth of Jesus irrelevant and, in addition, absolutely did not know when it could have occurred. During the following centuries, when beginning to arise desire to celebrate the natalicio of Jesus of a clear and differentiated form, some theologians, being based Thanksgiving Day 07 068

on texts of Gospels, they proposed to date it in as different dates as 6 and 10 from January, the 25 of March, 15 and 20 of April, the 20 and 25 of May and some others. But the Pope Fabian (236-250) decided take drastic measure as much speculation and described as sacrileges to those who tried to determine the date of the birth of the Nazarene. The fixed Armenian Church the birth of Christ the 6 of January, while other Eastern, Egyptian, Greek and Ethiopian churches proposed to fix the natalicio to day 8 of January. Finally, since in I conciliate of Nicea (year 325) is declared officially that Jesus is a divinity, since the father and the son are the same one, were decided to fix the natalicio of Christ during the winter solstice (in the North hemisphere re) that is, the 25 of December, date in which feast the birth of varied Roman and Germanic deities. Volume per immutable date, during the pontificado one of Liberio (352-366), the night from the 24 to the 25 of December, day in which the Romans celebrated the Natalis Solis Invicti, the birth of the Sun Invicto (a very popular and extended cult to which the Christians had not been able to win or to prescribe until then) and, of course, the same date in which all the contemporary towns festejaban the arrival of the winter solstice. The Eastern churches followed and continue festejando Christmas the 6 of January. With the restoration of Christmas also the celebration of the birthdays recoNikonL1 006vered in the West, although the European parishes did not begin to register the date of birth of their feligreses until century XII. At first Christmas had a humble character and farmer, but as of century VIII it began to be celebrated with the liturgical pomp that have arrived until today, having created progressively the illumination and decoration of the temples, the songs, readings and pious scenes that outdoors gave rise to representations of the birth in vestibule of Bethlehem, the famous Manger.

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Spanish version/Version en Espanol